Elephant is a service we provide to assist your assessment of electrical risk with major pipelines.

Low Frequency Induction (LFI) Impressed
Voltage Calculation Methodology to Satisfy
AS/NZS 4853:2012 Hazardous Voltages on
Metallic Pipelines.


The work we undertake and the services we provide reflect the requirements of AS/NZS 4853; however many of the equations within AS/NZS 4853 are known to provide inaccurate approximations, some example calculations and methods within AS/NZS 4853 are known to be flawed, and calculations in AS/NZS 4853 ignore the effects of fortuitous earthing arising from degraded coatings.


We warrant the methodology employed by our LFI software (Elephant) for impressed voltage calculations being performed to satisfy Australian & New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4853:2012 Hazardous voltages on metallic pipelines as complying with the international technical guide CIGRE 95 for the calculation of hazardous voltages on pipeline from the effects of high voltage power lines.

Where CIGRE 95 provides optional means of performing calculations we have endeavoured wherever possible to adopt the best practice recommendations from CIGRE 95 which in some instances requires deferring to advanced details in other specifications such as the ITU Directives.

Scope of Warranty

The scope of this warranty is strictly limited to impressed voltage calculations (including mitigation effects) associated with Low Frequency Induction (LFI) for the purposes of satisfying Standard AS/NZS 4853:2012 Sections 4.4.4 and 5.4.4 as complying with international guideline CIGRE 95 and referenced ITU Directives.


  • AS/NZS 4853:2012 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
  • HB102 (CJC‑6) Coordination of power and telecommunications – Low Frequency Induction (LFI)
  • CIGRE 95 Guide on the influence of high voltage power systems on metallic pipelines (WG: 36.02)
  • ITU-T Directives Vol III Calculating induced voltages and currents in practical cases (1998)

Standards Compliance Consultancy

We provide compliance consultancy for the Design Process requirements required by Australian & New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4853:2012 Hazardous voltages on metallic pipelines

More specifically the Design Process provided within The Standard for:

  • Australia: is detailed within Section 4: Design Process (Australia); and
  • New Zealand: is detailed within Section 5: Design Process (New Zealand).

The calculation equations within our software overcomes shortfall within AS/NZS 4853 and the automation of the software enables us to more efficiently align our processes to match the Standards requirements.